28 250 Courtesy of Korman Kocaismail 31

This section deals with statistics from the results of the Ottoman census of 1831. A quick glance and the stark realisation that Lurucina  or Luricine/Burucina as it was registered was a completely different village at that time is crystal clear. Though the land ownership per person of the population was 21 dönüms per adult male for the Turkish ( Women were not included in the Ottoman census's) & 27 dönüms  per adult male for the Greeks , the nature of farming produce was very different. Only a limited amount of olive trees and vineyards was used for cultivation. Fig trees, almonds, citrus, or fruit trees were non existent. Even the famous vineyards which our village later became famous for was limited to only 112 dönüms Muslim owned and 53 dönüms Christian owned. As the 1885 Lord Kitchener maps (on the archive material page 1) shows the growth of land used for vineyards grew massively and the 1931 census registered 1099 donums which was over 700% in a hundred years. Its clear that the predominantly new Turkish migrants of the late 1700s/early 1800s were large landowners with little skill in certain aspects of farming which they later acquired. Sadly no statistics for husbandry or other animals have been acquired, therefore we cannot verify how many may have been shepherds. though its interesting that no sheep pens were registered. The small amount of land used for vineyards could be explained in that, the new  Muslim emigrant population were not particularly interested in the produce of wine. The growth of the Greek wine industry and the Turkish Cypriot enjoyment of alcohol in later years transformed this particular produce which gave the nickname of the village stafillo-horgo (vine village). Its also clear that almonds, figs, apples etc were a later addition. In addition there was not a single property that was registered as a shop. If any exchange or sales were undertaken this must have happened on a personal barter basis.  

 

The most stark result found in this census was that there was no water well or water tank of any sort. The stream must have supplied the water needs of the inhabitants, therefore the myth that the village well founded by Lorenzia has finally proven to be just that, a myth.                          

 

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      This is the Turkish version of the above written English translation

 

Bu bölüm 1831 Osmanlı nüfus sayımı sonuç istatistikleri ile ilgilidir . Bunlara çabuk bir gözatma , Luricina veya o zamanki tescilli ismi Luricine/ Buricina olan bu köyün tamamı ile farklı bir köy olduğu yalın gerçeğini tüm berraklğı ile ortaya koyar. Kişi başına düşen toprak mülkiyeti kişi başına 21 dönüm her erkek Turk'e, (Osmanlilar, Kadinlari nüfus  rakamlarina dahil etmezdi ) ve 27 dönüm her erkek Rum'a olmasına rağmen, tarım ürünlerinin doğası çok farklıydı. Zeytin ağaçları ve üzüm bağları ekim ve  kullanimi kısıtlı  idi .Incir , badem ,narenciye ya da meyve ağaçları ise hiç yoktu. Hatta köyümüzün sonraları meşhur olan  ünlü üzüm bağları  ise sadece 112  Müslümanlara ve 53  Hıristiyanlara  ait olanla sınırlıydı. 1885 Lord Kitchener haritalarında  (arşiv malzemesi sayfa 1)  da görüldüğü gibi üzüm bağları için kullanılan araziler büyük  büyüme gösterdi ve 1931 nüfus sayımında  700% artış göstererek 1099 dönüme ulaştı. Açıkca görülüyor ki , ağırlıklı olarak adaya 1700 lü yılların sonlarında ve 1800 lü yılların başlarında yeni gelen büyük toprak sahibi göçmenler yeterli olmadıkları bazı tarim yöntemlerini sonradan geliştirdiler. Ne yazıktır ki hayvancılık ve hayvan sayıları için bir  istatistik elde edilmemiştir , bu nedenle  çoban sayısını veremiyoruz , ancak hiçbir ağılın kayıtlı olmamasi çok ilginçtir. Üzüm bağları için kullanılan arazinin az miktarda olması , yeni Müslüman göçmen nüfusun özellikle şarap üretmeye ilgi duymaması ile açıklanabilir. Rumlarin şarap endüstrisinin gelişmesi  ve daha sonraki yıllarda Kıbrıslı Türkler’in alkol  keyfinde  yaşanan büyüme  bu özel üründe , daha sonraları köye  “stafillo-horgo“ (asma köy) takma adının verilmesine kadar varacak bir değişim sağladı. Badem, incir  ve elma gibi ürünlerin de daha sonradan tercih gördüğü açıktır. Ayrıca dükkan olarak tescil edilmiş bir tek konut yoktur. Yapılan satışlar kişisel bazda veya  takas şeklinde gerçekleşmiş olmalı.

 

Bu nüfus sayımının  en yalın sonucu, herhangi bir su kuyusunun  ya da su deposunun kaydınin olmamasidir. Irmak, köy sakinlerinin su ihtiyaçlarını karşılamış olmalı , ve böylece köydeki su kuyusunun Lorenzia tarafından bulunduğunun bir efsane olduğu da kanıtlanmış oldu.

 

Nüfus  /population---  104 Muslims.  25 non Muslims

Hane/dwellings---    39 (Muslim owned)   13 (Christian owned)

Dükkan/shops---  0

Hamam---  0

şira-hane---  0

Mandira/sheep pens---  0

 

Tarla, arsa, frahti, çiftlik,havlı, duhan, hasillak--- 2098 dönüms (Muslim owned). 621 dönüms (Christian owned)

 

Bağ, bahçe--- 112 dönüms (Muslim owned)   53 dönüms (Christian owned)

değirmen dolap, havuz, kuyu / wells, water tanks, water pools, water holes--- 0

ceviz ağacı/ walnut trees---  0

Dut ağacı (Berry trees)--- 0

Fındık ağacı---   0

harup ağacı---  0

zeytin ağacı/Olive trees --- 130 Muslim owned  &  24 Christian owned

incir ağacı---  0

badem ağacı---  0

limon, portokal ağacı, lemon, orange trees.--- 0

ahur, samanlık, develik.---  0

kamışlık, kavaklık---  0

ayva, armut, elma, nar ağacı---  0

 

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In the 1831-33 census the only persons registered at the census were males or persons eligible for tax. Sadly this falls short of the comprehensive information needed to identify individuals with 100% certainty. The biggest problem is the following list amounts to only 36 people, The census however registered 104, therefore the list so far falls far short of what is desirable. Fortunately as we already have the family tree records this list is just a supplement to our ever growing knowledge of our roots.

 

Müslümanlar. Birinci isimler baba ikinci isimler kendi adlarıdır. The first name on the original list is the fathers name. Sorry about the confusion but that's how Ottomans listed families. The literal translation is Mustafa's son Hasan. As we all know these days we would register this as Hasan Mustafa. The names highlighted are yellow is from the original translation.

 

T.C Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivleri, TŞR.KB.d.00040 numaralı defterin 45 ve 46 numaralı sayfalarında bulunan Luricina’da yaşayan Müslüman erkeklerin isimleri. Tarih: 1831

 

İbrahim Garaoli family

1-Mustafa İbrahim, Sipahi

2-Hüseyin Mustafa, 13 yaşında

3-İbrahim Mustafa, 30 yaşında, Sipahi

4-Mustafa İbrahim, 3 yaşında

5-Süleyman İbrahim, 4 yaşında

6-Hasan Mustafa, 25 yaşında

7-Mustafa Hasan, 1 yaşında

 

********************************************************************

 

The Bayram Cidari family

8-Murad Süleyman, 35 yaşında The Cidari family

9-Bayram Murad, 6 yaşında

10-Mustafa Murad, 4 yaşında

11-İsmail Murad, 2 yaşında

 

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İbrahim Mustafa Danelli in the 1879 census he was recorded as being born in 1796.

12-İbrahim Mustafa,

 

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Osman Mustafa 'Osmano' family

13-İhtiyar Osman Mustafa, Osman Mustaf Osmano family

14-Halil Osman, 30 yaşında

15-Mustafa Osman, 25 yaşında

 

********************************************************************

16-Mustafa Mehmet, 36 yaşında

 

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Sari Mehmet Hüseyin Hürrem bey family

17-Hüseyin Mehmet, 30 yaşında

18-Mehmet Hüseyin, 7 aylık

19-Yusuf Mehmet, 32 yaşında

20-Hasan Mehmet, 30 yaşında

 

The Muslu family

21-Muslu Abdullah,  the Muslu family

22-Muslu Muslu, 30 yaşında

23-Yusuf Muslu, 2 yaşında

24-Yusuf Muslu, 25 yaşında

25-İsmail Muslu 15 yaşında

26-Ali Muslu, 12 yaşında

27-İbrahim Muslu, 6 yaşında

28-Süleyman Muslu, 4 yaşında

 

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The Mustafa Ömer 'Birini family'.

29-Mustafa Ömer,

30-Ömer Mustafa, 12 yaşında

31-Yusuf Mustafa, 1 yaşında

 

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The Porto & Alikko family

32-Osman Ali, 30 yaşında

33-Ali Mustafa,

34-Mustafa Ali, 25 yaşında

 

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The İbrahim Mustafa 'Paca' family (Mehmet Said efendi family tree)

35-İbrahim Mustafa, 35 yaşında

36-Mustafa İbrahim, 7 yaşında

37-Yusuf İbrahim, 12 yaşında

38-Ali İbrahim, 2 yaşında

 

********************************************************************

The Yusuf Mustafa 'Silioni/Kirlangic' family

39-Yusuf Mustafa, Silioni

40-Hasan Yusuf, 13 yaşında

41-Seyidali Yusuf, 8 yaşında

42-Osman Yusuf, 25 yaşında

43-Mustafa Yusuf, 35 yaşında, Sipahi

44-Yusuf Mustafa, 5 yaşında did not survive to adult hood

45-Osman Mustafa, 3 yaşında survived

46-Mehmet Mustafa, 1 yaşında did not survive to adult hood

 

********************************************************************

Hüseyin Mustafa 'Skufidi'family tree.

47-Hüseyin Mustafa,

48-Mustafa Hüseyin, 5 yaşında

49-İsmail Hüseyin, 2 yaşında

 

********************************************************************

Mehmet Ismail Katri family

50-Mehmet İsmail Kadri (People who had the name Kadri at that time belonged to the order of the Kadiriye. See the history and family tree for more information)

51-Yusuf Mehmet, 32 yaşında Yusuf Mehmet Aga

52-Mustafa Mehmet, 40 yaşında Kara Mustafa Hrisafi

53-İsmail Mustafa, 5 yaşında

54-Ramazan Mustafa, 3 yaşında

 

55-Yetim Yusuf Veli, 7 yaşında

 

56-Veli Mehmet, 4 yaşında

 

 ********************************************************************

The Mustafa İbrahim 'Öküz' family

57-Mustafa İbrahim, 25 yaşında

58-İbrahim Mustafa, 1 yaşında

 

The İbrahim Garaoli family

59-Yusuf İbrahim,  

60-İbrahim Yusuf, 12 yaşında

61-Hüseyin Yusuf, 9 yaşında

 

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62-Veli İsmail,

 

Could be the Hüseyin Uşi family?

63-Hüseyin İsmail, 35 yaşında

64-Mustafa Hüseyin, 2 yaşında

65-İsmail Hüseyin, 2 yaşında

 

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Unidentified family. may have left the village

66-Hüseyin Mustafa,

67-İbrahım Hüseyin, 25 yaşında

 

 ********************************************************************

Öksüz Ali from the Porto & Alikko family tree

68-Yetim Ali Yusuf, 8 yaşında

69-Mustafa Yusuf, 2 yaşında

 

 ********************************************************************

Unidentied family. may have left the village

70-Hüseyin İsmail,

71-Yusuf Hüseyin, 25 yaşında

 

 ********************************************************************

Mehmet Ismail Kadri family. (Ismail Gaccari)

72-İsmail Mehmet, 40 yaşında

73-Mehmet İsmail, 10 yaşında

74-Süleyman İsmail, 8 yaşında

75-Veli İsmail, 2 yaşında

 

 ********************************************************************

The Mehmet Said family

76-Ramazan Mehmet, 40 yaşında

77-Mustafa Mehmet, 35 yaşında

78-Mehmet Mustafa, 3 yaşında,

79-Yusuf Mustafa, 8 aylık

 

 ********************************************************************

The Topal Hasan Hüseyin 'Gutso-Hasano' family

80-Topal Hasan Hüseyin,  

81-Yusuf Hasan, 25 yaşında

82-Ramazan Topal Hasan, 23 yaşında

83-İbrahim Topal Hasan, 40 yaşında

84-Hasan İbrahim, 6 yaşında

85-Seyidali İbrahim, 4 yaşında

86-Hüseyin Topal Hasan, 40 yaşında, sipahi

87-Hasan Hüseyin, 3 yaşında

88-Ali Hüseyin, 9 aylık

89-Mustafa Topal Hasan, 33 yaşında

 

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Unidentified family. may have left the village

90-İbrahim Süleyman, 28 yaşında

91-Hüseyin İbrahim, 1 yaşında

 

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The Süleyman Yusuf 'Zabuni' family

92-İbrahim Süleyman, 20 yaşında

93-Yetim Osman Süleyman, 8 yaşında

94-Yetim Hüseyin Süleyman, 7 yaşında

95-Yusuf Süleyman, 30 yaşında

96-Süleyman Yusuf, 1 yaşında

 

 ********************************************************************

Mustafa 'Çıkırıkcı' family tree

97-Mustafa Süleyman, 30 yaşında

 

 ********************************************************************

Ismail Sari 'Tahura' family

98-Dilenci Mehmet İsmail,

99-Dilenci Mustafa İsmail,

100-İsmail Dilenci Mustafa, 25 yaşında

 

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This family may have belonged to the Ismail Sari 'Tahura' family but no other reords of them have been found. It may be that they had no other children, therefore the family tree was cut short

101-Hasan İsmail,

102-Şerif İsmail, 25 yaşında

 

 ********************************************************************

Not certain which family these persons belong to.

103-Mehmet İbrahim, 23 yaşında

104-Hasan Mehmet, 3 yaşında

 

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The list of the Greek speaking members of our community. Please note that the second from last gentleman (name unknown) on the list is registered as being a hundred years old, born in 1731,

 

Bu liste Köyün Rum isimlerini verir. Dikkat edin ki listenin sonundan ikinci olan erkek yüz yaşında olduğunu belgelendi, yani 1731 doğumlu

 

Names of the Greek inhabitants of Lurucina in the 1831 census. The name of the village in the census was written as Burucina

 

 

Dimitrinin oğlu Marko elli yaşında. Born/doğduğu tarih 1781

Dimitrinin oğlu Vasili kırk yaşında Born/doğduğu tarih 1791

 

Anastasinin oğlu Hristoğli. otuz yaşında. Born/doğduğu tarih 1901

oğlu Milna? bir aylık.

Anastasi oğlu Pedri kırk yaşında. Born/doğduğu tarih 1781

Yorginin oğlu Kostanti 45 yaşında. Born/doğduğu tarih 1776

Anastasinin oğlu Kipriyagu 35 yaşında. Born/doğduğu tarih  1786

 

Pedrinin oğlu Yorgi. 27 yaşında Born/doğduğu tarih 1804

Pedrinin oğlu Kostanti kırk yaşında Born/doğduğu tarih 1791

 

Kostantinin oğlu Pedri iki yaşında. Born/doğduğu tarih 1829

diğer oğlu Kipriyagu 6 aylık

.

Mihailin oğlu Nikola 30 yaşında Born/doğduğu tarih 1801

Mihailin oğlu Pedri Mide 25. Born/doğduğu tarih 1806

Pedrinin oğlu Mihali 1 Born/doğduğu tarih 1830

 

Yorginin oğlu Kostanti 45. Born/doğduğu tarih 1786

Kostantinin oğlu Pedri 10. Born/doğduğu tarih 1821

diğer oğlu Yorgi 7 Born/doğduğu tarih 1824

diğeri Yanni 5 Born/doğduğu tarih 1826

diğeri Luizi 3 Born/doğduğu tarih 1828

diğeri Mihail 1 Born/doğduğu tarih 1830

 

Luizinin oğlu Mihali 27. Born/doğduğu tarih Born 1804

 

Anastasinin oğlu Mihail 25 Born/doğduğu tarih 1806

 

Yorginin oğlu Pedri 77 Born/doğduğu tarih 1754

Yorginin oğlu Anastasi 85 Born/doğduğu tarih 1746-

Anastasiniin oğlu Kostanti 55.  Born/doğduğu tarih 1776

oğlu Haralambu 3.  Born/doğduğu tarih 1828

 

diğer oğlu Kiryagu 1 Born/doğduğu tarih 1830

yakini ....... ?. 100 yaşında (Belge anlaşılmadığından dolayı bu köylümüzün ismi çıkarılamadı, As the document was damaged it has not been possible to identify the name of this person, his year of birth/doğduğu tarih would have been in 1731)

 

Hristofinin oğlu Mihail. 80.  Born/doğduğu tarih 1751

 

Nufus sayimin tarihi 12 Nisan 1831 (date of census 12 April 1831)

kodu TŞR_KB_d_00043_0100 ve 0167 numaralı sayfalar. 0100 isimlerin yazdığı sayfalar. 0167 tarihin yazdığı sayfa.

 

 

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Records of the 1833 property owners. 1833 mal sahiplerin isimleri

 

Due to the lack of lakabs on the list it was hard to know exactly who the individuals were. Looking at the first 2 generations and checking the 1831 T.C Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivleri, TŞR.KB.d.00040 numaralı defterin 45 ve 46 numaralı sayfalar, and comparing the 1833 list of Muslim names, It was possible to work many of them out. The Numbers given are those that they were registered in the 1831 census. I have  highlighted the known family names in yellow in order to make them more recognizable to readers. I apologize if any mistakes have been made in this most difficult identification.

 

Başbakanlık Osmanlı arşivlerininML.VRD.TMT.d.16152 numaralı defterinin 49-52. Sayfaları. Luricina köyü. 1833 yılı.

 

Hüseyin Mustafa. Emlakı: 1 oda, 50 dönüm tarla, 4 dönüm bağ, 5 dönüm harman yeri (possibly Huseyin Skufidi Person No; 66)

 

Mustafa Mehmet .Emlakı: 1 oda, 40 dönüm tarla, 3 dönüm bağ, 40 keçi, 1 öküz, 30 zeytin ağacı, 1 dönüm harman yeri. (either Kara Mustafa Mehmet Kadri 'Hrisafi, or Mustafa Mehmet Said 'Kazmalevri'. Person No's; 52 &77)

 

İsmail Mehmet.Emlakı: 1 oda, 60 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 3 dönüm bağ, 10 keçi koyun, 6 zeytin ağacı, 2 harman yeri  (Ismail Mehmet Gaccari, Mehmet Katri family. Person No; 72)

 

Yusuf ve kardeşi Veleddin ?Veli. Emlakı: 1oda, 15 dönüm tarla, 3 dönüm bağ, 60 adet koyun. The only Veli & Yusuf close to each other on the 1831 census was an orphan boy Yusuf, and a Veli with no other family. But their surnames do not match. Person No's; 55 & 56

 

Yusuf Mehmet. Emlakı: 1 oda, 80 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 14 dönüm bağ, 50 koyun, 7 zeytin, 1 harman (Yusuf Mehmet 'Aga'. The Kadri familyPerson No; 51)

 

Osman Ali .Emlakı: 1 oda, 20 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 2 dönüm bağ (Osman Ali Kuri from the Porto & Alikko family)

 

Yusuf Süleyman .Emlakı:1 oda, 60 dönüm tarla, 2 dönüm bağ, 1 öküz, 10 koyun, 2 zeytin, 2 harman ( Yusuf Süleyman 'Kavukko'. Person No; 95)

 

Mustafa Muslu .Emlakı: 1 oda, 60 dönüm tarla, 2 dönüm bağ, 1 öküz, 1 harman  (Akai, from the Muslu family? )

 

İbrahim Süleyman. Emlakı: 1 oda, 80 dönüm tarla, 5 dönüm bağ, 40 koyun, 1 öküz, 5 zeytin, 2 harman  ( İbrahim Süleyman 'Camuri'? person No; 90)

 

Murat Süleyman. Emlakı: 1 oda, 30 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 1 harman (Murat Süleyman Cidari Person No; 8)

 

İsmail Mustafa. Emlakı: 1 oda, 50 dönüm tarla, 3 dönüm bağ, 1 öküz, 1 dönüm harman yeri, 10 koyun. There were only 2 Ismail Mustafa's recorded in 1831. One was only 5 years old  however.(person No; 53 from the Mehmet Kadri family). The other was recorded as a dilenci, a beggar, (person No; 100) Its unlikely either could have owned such a large amount of land and animals. Unless 'dilenci was simply a nickname from his family. This is purely speculative a bit of an unsolved mystery.

 

Hüseyin Hasan .Emlakı: 1 oda, 85 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 9 koyun.  ( Hasan Hüseyin Topal person No; 86. born 1791)

 

Mustafa Mehmet. Emlakı: 1 oda, 20 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 5 koyun, 2 dönüm bağ, 1 zeytin, 1 harman

 

Hüseyin Mustafa.  Emlakı: 1 oda, 80 dönüm tarla, 2 dönüm bağ, 1 harman

 

Yusuf İbrahim. Emlakı: 1 oda, 120 dönüm tarla, 2 öküz, 6 dönüm bağ, 8 koyun, 6 zeytin, 2 dönüm harman (Yusuf  İbrahim  Garaoli person No; 59 )

 

 

Yusuf Hasan. Emlakı:  1 oda, 1 öküz

 

Muslu Ali. Emlakı: (The Muslu family)1 oda, 80 dönüm tarla, 6 dönüm bağ, 40 koyun, 2 öküz, 10 zeytin, 1 harman

 

Osman Yusuf (The Silioni family).  Emlakı: 1 oda, 40 dönüm tarla, 1 dönüm bağ, 1 öküz

 

İbrahim Hasan. Emlakı: 1 oda, 50 dönüm tarla, 5 koyun, 1 öküz, 4 dönüm bağ, 5 zeytin, 1 harman

 

Veleddin İsmail. Emlakı:1 oda, 30 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 1 harman

 

Ali Mustafa. Emlakı: 1 oda, 60 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 30 koyun, 1 dönüm bağ, 1 harman

 

Hasan İsmail. Emlakı: 1 oda, 15 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 50 koyun, 1 dönüm bağ, 1 harman yeri

 

Ramazan Mehmet. Emlakı: 1 oda, 40 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 2 dönüm bağ, 5 keçi, 5 zeytin, 1 harman

 

İbrahim Süleyman. Emlakı: 1 oda, 30 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 8 koyun, 2 zeytin

 

Yusuf Mustafa .Emlakı: 1 oda, 40 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 5 zeytin, 6 dönüm bağ, 1 …. Değirmeni, 1 harman yeri ( Yusuf Mustafa Silioni. Person No; 39).

 

Hüseyin İsmail. Emlakı: 1 oda, 2 dönüm tarla

 

Mustafa Yusuf. Emlakı: 1 oda, 30 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 5 koyun, 2 dönüm bağ, 3 zeytin, 1 harman ( Mustafa Yusuf 'Silioni'. Person No; 43)

 

Mustafa Süleyman. Emlakı: 1 oda ( Of uncertain family origin. Person No; 97 born 1801)

 

Hüseyin Mehmet. Emlakı: 1 oda, 60 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 2 dönüm bağ, 4 koyun, 1 zeytin, 1 harman

 

İbrahim Hüseyin. Emlakı: 1 oda, 26 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz

 

İbrahim Mustafa.  Emlakı: 2 oda, 100 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 6 dönüm bağ, 20 koyun ve keçi, 1 harman yeri  ( İbrahim Mustafa Garaoli person No;3. born 1801)?

 

Mustafa Hasan. Emlakı: 1 oda, 80 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 2 dönüm bağ, 1 harman

 

Mustafa Ömer. Emlakı: 1 oda, 80 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 11 zeytin, 2 dönüm bağ, 5 koyun, 1 harman yeri, Aytotro köyünde tuz kaynağı, 6 zeytin. ( Mustafa Ömer 'Birini' family. Person No; 29).

 

Mustafa Mehmet. Emlakı: 1 oda, 80 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 2 dönüm bağ, 3 keçi, 3 zeytin, 1 harman, karısının malı 7 zeytin ağacı.  (either Kara Mustafa Mehmet Kadri 'Hrisafi, or Mustafa Mehmet Said 'Kazmalevri'. Person No's; 52 &77)

 

Hasan Mehmet. Emlakı: 1 oda, 80 dönüm tarla, 5 dönüm bağ, 1 öküz, 20 koyun, 5 zeytin, 1 dönüm harman

 

İbrahim Mustafa. emlakı: 1 oda, 80 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 2 dönüm bağ, 40 koyun, 1 tosun, 1 harman yeri.  There were 4 individuals by the same name in the1831 census. One was only 1 years old. The remaining were from the Garaoli, Danelli and one unidentied individual

 

Hasan Hüseyin. Emlakı:1 oda, 100 dönüm tarla, 10 dönüm bağ, 30 koyun, 10 zeytin  (Hasan Hüseyin Topal person No; 80 )

 

Yusuf Mehmet. Emlakı:1 oda, 60 dönüm tarla, 1 öküz, 1 dönüm bağ, 5 koyun, 2 zeytin

 

Mustafa İbrahim. ('Mattaga'. From the Garaoli family?) Emlakı: 2 oda, 50 dönüm tarla, 2 öküz, 60 koyun, 5 dönüm bağ, Limya köyünde 25 adet zeytin ağacı.

 

 

As some of our ancestors were from the Sipahi cavalry class  I thought a description of who and what they were would be helpful. The Sipahi's were equivalent to the European Knights.

 

The Ottoman people had rights to the land but the Sipahi's  a unique kind of military aristocracy and cavalry portion of the military, also lived on the land with the farmers and collected tax revenues, usually in-kind, to subsidize the costs of training and equipping the small army, dedicated to serving the sultan. Was there a reason for all these Muslim families to have settled in Lurucina during the same period? It's possible of course that certain elements, possibly the Christian or Latin members of the population joined in rebellion, and after being subdued the Sipahi families were rewarded with land for serving the Sultan faithfully? No doubt expert historians of Cyprus would know of these events in more detail, but that's not to say they bothered with researching individual families like our roots in such detail. In order to understand the role of Sipahi's a few independent sources would suffice to answer the role of these cavalry men during the Ottoman Empire.

 

The following is from the Encyclopedia Britannica.

 

"Sipahi, occasionally spelled spahi,  feudal cavalryman of the Ottoman Empire whose status resembled that of the medieval European knight. The sipahi (from Persian for “cavalryman”) was holder of a fief (timar; Turkish: tımar) granted directly by the Ottoman sultan and was entitled to all of the income from it in return for military service. The peasants on the land were subsequently attached to the land and became serfs. The sipahis provided the bulk of the Ottoman army until about the mid-16th century. From then on they were gradually supplanted by the Janissaries, an elite corps composed of infantrymen paid regular salaries by the sultanate. In part, this change resulted from the increased use of firearms, which made cavalry less important, and from the need to maintain a regular standing army. The sipahis were completely discredited during the War of Greek independence (1821–32), and the timar system was officially abolished in 1831 by Sultan Mahmud II as part of his program to create a modern Western-style army".

 

The Military Architecture describes them as Sipahis which were the Turkish equivalent of the European armored knights. These troops were largely accustomed to fighting on horseback and their strength lay in their mobility as mounted archers. Their light weapons and armour were designed for hit-and-run tactics.

 

Since Kapikulu Sipahis were a cavalry regiment it was well known within the Ottoman military circles that they considered themselves a more superior stock of soldiers than Janissaries, who were sons of Christian peasants from the Balkans (Rumelia), and were basically slaves bound by various laws of the devşirme.

 

Whereas the Sipahis (both Tımarlı and Kapıkulu) were almost exclusively chosen amongst ethnic Turkic landowners, they made great strides of efforts to gain respect within the Ottoman Empire and their political reputation depended on the mistakes of the Janissary. That minor quarrels erupted between the two units is made evident with a Turkmen adage, still used today within Turkey, "Atlı er başkaldırmaz", which, referring to the unruly Janissaries

 

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Gilles Grivaud the French researcher in the book, ''The Archaeology of Past and Present in the Malloura Valley, edited by Derek Counts, P. Nick Kardulias, and Michael Toumazou, 2012''. have helped our knowledge on the local history surrounding Lurucina.  Their information gives us some informative details of the villages and populations around Lurucina in the last years of Venetian rule. The details may be from the 1562 or 1565 records.

 

the few villages mentioned.

Malloura 81

Athienou / Atirne  61

S Zorzi  (Petrofan ? ) 1

Damidia / Damalia) 31

Lympia  88

Louroujina / Lorthina  186

Potamia  66

Dhali  158.

 

One of the most interesting records which gives us an opportunity to make some comparisons with the village under the Venetians is the first tax valuation carried out on Lurucina  ( Named Lorthina  at the time ) by the Ottomans in 1572. This is because of  Halil Inalcik's research in 1969 of his Ottoman policy and administration in Cyprus after the conquest.

The following information is on page 21 table 2.

 

 

Population                              Ispenje

Households 24                      Adult males      27

Batchelors     3                      Total tax         810

Widows          0

Tithes                                                        

Wheat    900

Barley  1,050

Flax           -  

Cotton       -

Fruits      975

Olives       55

Dues

Beehives                  10

Cocoons                    -

Garden produce        -

Sheep-tax                 20

Pig-tax                      40

Fines & other dues   95

From properties without heirs etc  75

Rural guardianship     -

Mills                            -

Tavern

Total;              4,030.

 

The Jizye (Military exemption tax)  for Lurucina was about 26-27% of the total tax paid by the Christians in the first Ottoman census. The burden of having to work at least 2 days a week for their Venetian Lords was reduced to one day; this must have been a great relief for the people of Lurucina as the extra day gave them the opportunity to concentrate on their own crops. Another advantage soon became apparent, as the landless peasants were allowed to keep the land they worked on a ''perpetual lease,'' with the right to pass on their holdings to their sons, this in effect turned the peasants into land owners. Title deed registrations did not come into effect however until the mid 1800s. A sworn testimony by at least 2 witnesses and the local Imam or priest was sufficient to prove ownership of land.

 

Lurucina's tax liability for 1572.

Jizye                      Total of all taxes           percentage of tax                 average tax burden

                                                                   collected in kind                     per adult male

1,620                         5,704                                  54                                     210

 

Judging from the above tax payers population we can come to a rough estimate that the women were in equal number and perhaps half the population may have been children. Some disabled, or old men were of course exempt. With Turkish settlers still not in large numbers a fair guess for 1572 would be that the people were predominantly Christian.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Census of 12 April 1831 deals with individual names

 

The 1833 census deals with details of property ownership and is lower down the page. These are followed by the 1572, 1612 and 1672-73 Census reports. Found in the Istanbul National Archives

Information below is from the 1672-73 Ottoman census  A-03618 Numarali Cizye Defteri  1672-73 (Hicri yil 1083-84 Ekim kasim) karye-i Lurocine, Lefkosa. Yekun Hane 38

 

Names of the main home owners and Cizye tax payers of the village. The 38 main homeowners name below

Petro Baba Bali and  Baba Petro Baba Anistas were probably the village priests

 

Dimitri Kuki

Istorye Istorye

Snalisa Hirbako

Snalisa Perolimo

Istorye Kelino

Mayusil Hristodiye

Perolimo Bali

Prolimo Guril

Yorgimi Hristodulo

Kesiris Perolimo

Perolimo Peneri

Yuandro Nikolo

Perolimo Kesiris

Benardi Kerigiko

Anistas Kerigiko

Anistas Hirbako

Perasuga Huvaf

Hristodulo Guril

Bati Petro

Kerigiko Kesite

Nikolo Yuvandro

Anistas

Perolimo Yorgi

Yorgimi Yorgi

Benardi Kerigiko

Prolimo Benaliya

Bati Anistas

Havaf Perolimo

Guril Pe kolo

Kesiris Bati

Yorgi Agino

Perolimo Agino

Peneri Bali

Nikolo Penero

Kerigiko Luviro

Kerigiko Nikolo

Perolimo Agino

Petro Mayusil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The 1612 Cizye (Christian tax) census. From the Republic of Turkey National Archives. Doc No; 5084

 

The 1612 census did not change the statistics of the 1572 Ottoman census of Lurucina very much. The only difference is that in 1612 they were recorded according to their status. These were 8 poor (ednâ) cizye tax payers, 2 medium (evsât ) cizye tax payers and 15 rich (!) (a’lâ) cizye tax payers. The difference probably reflected the amount of land and tax each household paid. How much difference there was from rich to poor is not very clear.

The document above is the 03924 Cizye records for the year 1650. Its from the Kamil Kepeci Cizye Muhasebe Kalemi and it's page 148, which is a summary of Cyprus's records of the period. It consists of a total of 148 Ottoman pages which is roughly 450-500 A4. The archive documents records every Cizye tax payer in Cyprus for the year 1650.

Ottoman census records of Lurucina from 1572-1833

The Sipahi on the left. Osprey men at arms series. plate B2. describes them as the ''Feudal cavalry were the backbone of medieval Ottoman armies.''

The following photos have been shared by courtesy of Hasan Gazi

cropped Muhimme Defteri  XIX, Page 334-335 Firman of 1572 7 Firman of 1572 5 KK_d____03924_00147 MAD_d___08428_00003 KK_d____03924_00002 1650 KK_d____03924_00001 KK_d____02551_00002 MAD_d___05084_00002 copy-1 Sipahi's Sipahi 1 Original Ottoman 1878-9 Document Ottoman Census 1879-9 Hasan Gazi 62 Hasan Gazi 64 Hasan Gazi 67 Hasan Gazi 68